The res:// Protocol And Phoning Home


An internal tool phones home.

Why does it phone home?

It’s a WPF app that defers most of the heavy lifting to a web app rendered through a Web Browser control.

Initial Approach

Easy enough – clone the website. But where to host it? The tool needs to run without network access.

Second step

Store the contents of the site in the executable itself. It’s a .NET WPF app and this seems like the sort of problem embedded resources were intended to solve.

Unfortunately the WPF web browser control, a light wrapper around IE’s ActiveX control, doesn’t know* how to read from managed resources. It *does* however, know how to read from native/win32/PE resources.

How do we store a native resource in a .NET executable?

.NET executables conform to the PE (Portable Executable) format that all windows executables use. Native resources (native is a retronym in this case, before .NET this was the only kind of resource) are defined as part of the PE spec.

It turns out that Visual Studio automatically creates a native/win32 resource for console projects. This resource stores the icon that the shell uses to represent the executable. And it allows you to specify this file, a compiled resource file (*.res), instead of having it automatically generated.

But how do we get a compiled resource file?

The resource related tooling in Visual Studio for .NET projects assumes use of .NET resources. These are a totally different kettle of fish than native/win32 resources. The MSDN article “About Resource Files” explains how to create compiled resource files (spoiler alert: there’s a resource compiler).

But HTML content assumes a directory structure

Native resources predate the WWW by several years. There’s no support for hierarchically arranged files. There are resource types (e.g., RT_BITMAP, RT_FONT, etc…) but other than resource type the structure is entirely flat. This necessitated some manual mapping/flattening of the HTML.

The cloned website included javascript, css and image content. Most of the image content was due to the ExtJS javascript library. Other than the image content there were very few links: each of these was manually converted to a res:// link.

CSS allows references to resources (e.g., background images) via its URL function. Modern CSS libraries make heavy use of the URL function. It turns out that there were several dozen files referenced this way. Fortunately URL accepts relative and absolute URLs. These were programmatically flattened, included in the compiled resource (.res) file and the referencing URL function updated with the res:// link.

All of the files, including images (*.png), javascript and style sheets, were included in the compiled resource file as type RT_HTML (#23) yielding internal URLs in the form res://MyExecutableName.exe/#23/MappedFileName.ext.

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